Multiple Inheritance in Objective-C / Core Data vs C++

Multiple inheritance is hard. In fact it is so hard, that only very few programming languages support it. Objective-C is one for instance, where support for multiple inheritance is limited to the conformance to @protocols. Behavior can only be inherited from one single base class.

If you need multiple inheritance in Objective-C you have several options to choose from. Most of the time when you are looking for answers to the question of how to do multiple inheritance in Objective-C the right way, you will be pointed into one of two directions: #1 don’t use it because it implies a flawed design. #2 do it using composition (via delegates).

Option #1 I do not like at all. There are cases where MI is very well suited and only because Objective-C doesn’t support it doesn’t mean it is bad. It just means that the language designers considered it way too complicated to implement for the benefit of a few cases where it makes sense.

For instance, my current use case with strong need for multiple inheritance support is the UML specification. UML makes heavy use of multiple inheritance and if you study the UML model you will find that the abstractions found in there make very well sense because they eliminate redundancy and the need to explain what’s going on. All those abstractions are basically orthogonal classifications which can be combined in a subclass to express things very precise and in a type-safe manner.

So, if you are forced to deal with multiple inheritance in your program you can do so with option #2 in Objective-C. However, in my opinion, this has limitations. I will give you an example: Imagine a model like this:

Let’s say we map this to the following physical implementation in Objective-C. Here, the greenish elements are Objective-C @protocol and the yellowish elements are Objective-C @class:

It follows the often heard recommendation to map inheritance using composition. Here, the Class part of an AssociationClass is mapped to a delegate called “theClassImpl”, whereas the Association base class is mapped to plain Objective-C inheritance.

Suppose now we want to map this structure to CoreData. We need to model NSManagedEntity with NSManagedProperty. CoreData does not work on top of @protocols but on actual @classes. Therefore, we have one physical implementation of the association between Class and Property (owningClass-properties).

But here comes the big BUT: This can only work if we have full control over the OR mapping! CoreData on the other hand, does not rely on interfaces but on the actual implementations. That means, we must publish the otherwise internal composition mapping of theClassImpl to CoreData. If we then have a client of Class (for instance: Property::owningClass) then it will not be possible to downcast such a Class obtained from the persistence layer into an AssociationClass. Instead, it would be necessary to navigate backwards from the Class to the actual AssociationClass. But this kind of “alternative” cast can not be implemented transparently using Objective-C language constructs. An [aClass isKindOfClass:[AssociationClassImpl class]] would yield a technical “NO” and it’s not possible to extend the language to make it yield “YES”.

Such an MI -> SI mapping scenario can only work if every consumer solely relies on the Interfaces only and makes no assumption about internal structures. This would imply that the ORM uses factories instead of instantiating from its meta information. In CoreData, this is not the case.

This is why you can pretty much ignore the advice how to map multiple inheritance at the language level if you don’t also consider the APIs you’re dealing with because those APIs will render the easy sounding solution in the context of reality useless pretty quickly. In my case, I was forced to implement the model part of the system in C++ because C++ has awesomely good support for multiple inheritance. All problems related to the mapping of multiple inheritance to the microprocessor architecture had been solved by Bjarne Stroustrup in C++ since day 1. Read here why and how:

Here’s how the dreaded diamond from the example above would be implemented in C++:

class Element {

class Association: public virtual Element {

class Class: public virtual Element {
    std::vector<class Property*> properties;

class Property: public Element {
    Class *owningClass;

class AssociationClass: public Association, public Class {

A straight 1:1 mapping of the concept to the language. Here, class “AssociationClass” would fully inherit the behavior of Class::properties without the need to implement something special. It just works. But, in comparison to Objective-C the C++ implementation lacks support for Core Data. But: so does multiple inheritance in Objective-C with CoreData! So no real difference here.


Multiple inheritance with CoreData is close to impossible except for very simple cases. With C++, besides all its ugliness and controversy, at least you get multiple inheritance in the language and usually in an implementation quality without the need to waste your time thinking around the whole concept.


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